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Thursday, May 19, 2011

Viola odorata-Banafsha

Price Rs. 550/-US$20 (25 Seeds)
Sweet Violet
Latin name : Viola odorata Cashmerina
Family : Violaceae (Violet Family)
Arabic Name : Farfeer, Banafsaj
Cashmerian Name: Nun Posh
Bengali Name : Banopa, Baga Banusa
Chinese Name : Zi Hua Di Ding
English Name : Sweet Violet, Sweet-Scented Violet, Garden Violet, Heartease
French Name : Violette Douce
German Name : Duftveilchen, Heckenveilchen, Märzveilchen.
Gujarati Name : Bahapa, Bahaphsa 
Hindi Name : Banaphsha
Marathi Name : Bugabanosa
Persian Name : Banafsha
Punjabi Name : Banafsha
Sanskrit Name : Neelapushpa
Urdu Name : Berge Banafsha (Leaf), Gul Banafsha (Flower)

Habitat : Shrubberies, forest clearings, rocky and shady areas; mud walls, hedgebanks.

Distribution : Gilgat (Azad Kashmir), Pakistan, IRAN, Kashmir, North Aferica, North and West Asia.

Botanical features : Perennial herbs with stout creeping rootstock, Leaves all radical, upto 3 cm diam., petiolate, stipules elongated, leafy. Flowers pinkish-blue or purplish, with long pedicels. Capsule 3-sided.

Medicinal use of Sweet Violet :
Sweet violet has a long and proven history of folk use, especially in the treatment of cancer and whooping cough. It also contains salicylic acid, which is used to make aspirin. It is therefore effective in the treatment of headaches, migraine and insomnia. The whole plant is anti-inflammatory, diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, and laxative. It is taken internally in the treatment of bronchitis, respiratory catarrh, coughs, asthma, and cancer of the breast, lungs or digestive tract. Externally, it is used to treat mouth and throat infections. The plant can either be used fresh, or harvested when it comes into flower and then be dried for later use. The flowers are demulcent and emollient. They are used in the treatment of biliousness and lung troubles. The petals are made into a syrup and used in the treatment of infantile disorders. The roots is a much stronger expectorant than other parts of the plant but they also contain the alkaloid violine which at higher doses is strongly emetic and purgative. They are gathered in the autumn and dried for later use. The seeds are diuretic and purgative. They have been used in the treatment of urinary complaints are considered to be a good remedy for gravel. A homeopathic remedy is made from the whole fresh plant. It is considered useful in the treatment of spasmodic coughs and rheumatism of the wrist. An essential oil from the flowers is used in aromatherapy in the treatment of bronchial complaints, exhaustion and skin complaints.

Chemical constituents : Rhizomes contain glycoside-methyl salicylate, an alkaloid violine, a glycoside-violequarcitin which is identical to rutin, and saponin. Leaves and flowers contain methl salicylate.
Description of the plant:

Plant : Evergreen Perennial
Height : 10 cm (4 inches)
Flovering : February to April
Scent : Scented Perennial
Habitat of the herb : Fields, hedgerows and woodlands, especially on calcareous soils.

Edible parts of Sweet Violet : Young leaves and flower buds - raw or cooked. Usually available all through the winter. The leaves have a very mild flavour, though they soon become quite tough as they grow older. They make a very good salad, their mild flavour enabling them to be used in bulk whilst other stronger-tasting leaves can then be added to give more flavour. When added to soup they thicken it in much the same way as okra. Also used as a flavouring in puddings etc. A tea can be made from the leaves. Flowers - raw. Used to decorate salads and desserts. A sweet mild flavour with a delicate perfume, the flowers are an especially welcome decoration for the salad bowl since they are available in late winter. The flowers are also used fresh to flavour and colour confectionery. A soothing tea can be made from the leaves and flowers. A leaf extract is used to flavour sweets, baked goods and ice cream.

Other uses of the herb :
An essential oil from the flowers and leaves is used in perfumery. 1000kg of leaves produces about 300 - 400g absolute. The flowers are used to flavour breath fresheners. A pigment extracted from the flowers is used as a litmus to test for acids and alkalines. Plants can be grown as a ground cover when spaced about 30cm apart each way. They make an effective weed-excluding cover.

Propagation of Sweet Violet :
Seed - best sown in the autumn in a cold frame. The seed requires a period of cold stratification and the germination of stored seed can be erratic. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer. Division in the autumn or just after flowering. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, though we have found that it is best to pot up smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse or cold frame until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the summer or the following spring.

Cultivation of the herb : Fields, hedgerows and woodlands, especially on calcareous soils.
Known hazards of Viola odorata : None known
Plant information taken from the Plants For A Future/JKMPIC/International Info.Resource Centre

More details: Jammu and Kashmir Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre-JKMPIC
Ist street, Shaheed-e-Azemat Raod, Nambalbal, Pampore PPR JK 192121
Mailing address: POB: 667 GPO Srinagar SGR JK 190001
Ph: 01933-223705
Mob: 09858986794

Monday, May 9, 2011

Solanum nigrum seed/plant for sale

Black Nightshade
Bot. Name: Solanum nigrum
Family : Solanaceae (Nightshade Family, Potato Family)
Arabic Name : Enab-us-Salab, Enab-us-Zaeb
Bengali Name : Gurkamai
Chinese Name : Huang shui qie, Long kui
English Name : Black Nightshade, Garden Nightshade, Petty Morel, Deadly Nightshade
French Name : Morelle noir
German Name : Schwarzer Nachtschatten, Giftbeere, Hundsbeere, Mondscheinkraut, Saukraut, Sautod
Gujarati Name : Piludi
Hindi Name : Makoi, Makoy, Mako
Kannada Name : Ganikayeagida, Ganikegida, ganike, Ganikesopu, Kage hanninagids
Cashmirian  Name : Kambae
Marathi Name : Kamoni, Ghati
Persian Name : Rubaah Turbuk, Angoor Shifa
Punjabi Name : Mako
Sanskrit Name : Kakmachi, Kakamachika
Urdu Name : Makoh, Mako

Medicinal use of Black Nightshade : The whole plant is antiperiodic, antiphlogistic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient, febrifuge, narcotic, purgative and sedative. It is harvested in the autumn when both flowers and fruit are upon the plant, and is dried for later use. Use with caution, see notes above on toxicity. The leaves, stems and roots are used externally as a poultice, wash etc in the treatment of cancerous sores, boils, leucoderma and wounds. Extracts of the plant are analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and vasodilator. The plant has been used in the manufacture of locally analgesic ointments and the juice of the fruit has been used as an analgesic for toothaches.

Description of the plant:
Plant : Annual
Height : 60 cm (2 feet)

Flovering : July to September
Habitat of the herb : Uncultivated and waste land. It is a common garden weed.

Edible parts of Black Nightshade : Fruit - cooked. Used in preserves, jams and pies. A pleasant musky taste. Somewhat like a tomato, but much less pleasant, it improves slightly after a frost. Only the fully ripe fruits should be used, the unripe fruits contain the toxin solanine. The fruit contains about 2.5% protein, 0.6% fat, 5.6% carbohydrate, 1.2% ash. The fruit is about 9mm in diameter. Young leaves and new shoots - raw or cooked as a potherb or added to soups. This plant is cultivated as a leaf crop in some areas, but see the notes at the top of the page regarding possible toxicity.

Medicinal values :  The whole plant is alterative, antiperiodic, constipative, demulscent, diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, febrifuge, hepatoprotective, hydragogue, narcotic, sedative and tonic. It is effective in the treatment of cirrhosis of the liver , spleen  and is also credited with emollient, antiseptic and laxative properties. It has a protective effect on the liver and has shown hepatoprotective activity in cases of toxicity induced by drugs and chemicals. Useful in chronic enlargement of liver (hepatomegaly).
Also useful in heart diseases, skin diseases, piles, gonorrhoea, prostate swelling, and inflammatory swellings. Useful in cough and consumption.

Other uses of the herb :
This species has been found to be effective in removing PCB's from the soil and detoxifying them. The plant is more effective in doing this if it is infected with the bacterial parasite Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

Propagation of Black Nightshade :
Seed - sow spring in situ. The seed can also be sown in a greenhouse during the spring if required. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant out in late spring.

Known hazards of Solanum nigrum : There is a lot of disagreement over whether or not the leaves or fruit of this plant are poisonous. Views vary from relatively poisonous to perfectly safe to eat. The plant is cultivated as a food crop, both for its fruit and its leaves, in some parts of the world and it is probably true to say that toxicity can vary considerably according to where the plant is grown and the cultivar that is being grown. The unripe fruit contains the highest concentration of toxins.

Price Rs. 550/- 50 seeds pkt
Solanum nigrum plants and seeds are available at our Centre at : Sonmarg, Kashmir
For more details: Jammu and Kashmir Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre
POB: 667 GPO Srinagar SGR JK 190001
Ph: 09858986794, 01933-223705