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Showing posts with label lycopene. Show all posts
Showing posts with label lycopene. Show all posts

Solanum lycopersicum seeds

Solanum lycopersicum seed
Family :Solanaceae
The word "tomato" may refer to the plant (Solanum lycopersicum) or the edible, typically small red, fruit that it bears.While it is botanically a fruit, it is considered a vegetable for culinary purposes 

Tomatoes contain all four major carotenoids: alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein, and lycopene. These carotenoids may have individual benefits, but also have synergy as a group (that is, they interact to provide health benefits).

1. Tomatoes are good for your skin.Tomatoes contain a high level of lycopene, which is a substance    that   is   used   in  some  of   the   more  pricy  facial   cleansers   that   are  available  for   purchase over-thecounter.If you want to try tomatoes for skin care, you need to start with about eight to twelve tomatoes. Peel the tomatoes and then place the skin on your face with inside of the tomato touching your skin.Leave the tomatoes on your face for a minimum of ten minutes, then wash. Your face will feel clean and shiny. Some redness may occur, but should fade with time.

2. Tomatoes help prevent several types of cancer. A number of studies have been conducted that indicate that the high levels of lycopene in tomatoes works to reduce your chances of developing prostate,colorectal and stomach cancer. Lycopene is a natural antioxidant that works effectively to slow the growth of cancerous cells. Cooked tomatoes produce even more lycopene, so go ahead and cook up a batch of your mom’s famous tomato soup.

3. Tomatoes help maintain strong bones. Tomatoes contain a considerable amount  of calcium    and Vitamin K. Both of these nutrients are essential in strengthening and performing minor repairs on the bones as well as the bone tissue.

4. Tomatoes help repair damage caused by smoking. No, eating tomatoes is not the most recent fad to help you quit smoking. However, tomatoes can reduce the amount of damaged done to your body by smoking cigarettes. Tomatoes contain coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid that work to protect the body from carcinogens that are produced from cigarette smoke.

5. Tomatoes provide essential antioxidants.Tomatoes contain a great deal of Vitamin A and Vitamin C. This is primarily because these vitamins and beta-carotene work as antioxidants to neutralize harmful free radicals in the blood. Free radicals in the blood stream are dangerous because it may lead to cell damage. Remember, the redder the tomato you eat is, the more beta-carotene it contains. In addition, you also want to keep in mind that cooking destroys the Vitamin C, so for these benefits, the tomatoes need to be eaten raw.

6. Tomatoes are good for your heart.Because of the Vitamin B and potassium in tomatoes, they are effective in reducing cholesterol levels and lowering blood pressure. Therefore, by including tomatoes in your regular balanced diet you can effectively prevent heart attacks, strokes as well as many other heart related problems that may threaten your life.

7. Tomatoes are good for your hair. The Vitamin A in tomatoes works perfectly to keep your hair shiny and strong. In addition, it also does wonders for your eyes, skin, bones and teeth.

8. Tomatoes are good for your kidneys. Adding tomatoes without seeds to your  diet has been proven in some studies to reduce the risk of kidney stones.

9. Tomatoes are good for your eyes. The Vitamin A found in tomatoes is fantastic for improving your vision. In addition, eating tomatoes is one of the best foods to eat to prevent the development of night blindness. Cataracts are the most common causes of visual problems.Decrease in the level of vitamin C in the lens of the human eye leads to increased number of cataracts. Increase of vitamin C in tomato intake increases the blood supply to the visual zones of the body and helps to cure this eye disorder.

10. Tomatoes are good for diabetics. Tomatoes are packed full of the valuable mineral known as chromium. It works effectively to help diabetics keep their blood sugar levels under better control

11. Lower Cholestrol . A Tomato- cholesterol free and a good source for diet; it won’t add cholesterol to the diet. A cup of tomato provides 9% of fiber that helps you to lower the high cholesterol levels. Tomatoes also contains niacin (vitamin B3),which has been used as a safe way to lower cholesterol levels.

12. Lower Blood Pressure .The tomatoes provide significant drop in blood pressure. After 8 weeks, ongoing tracking of daily tomato ingestion (in the form of  lycopene complex – a tomato extract) showed a drop in both the blood pressure top number (systolic) by 10 points and the bottom number (diastolic) by 4 points.

13. Protection from cell Damage .The tomatoes are excellent source of antioxidant lycopene. Antioxidants travel through the body, neutralizing dangerous free radicals that otherwise damage cells and cell membranes. Free radicals escalate the progression or severity of atherosclerosis, diabetic complications, asthma, and colon cancer. High intakes of lycopene have been shown to help reduce the risk or severity of all of these illnesses.

14. Counteract Acidosis . Acidosis, is a main cause of calcium loss, fatigue, headache,sleeplessness, muscle aches, acne, eczema, arteriosclerosis, sexual dysfunction, hormone imbalance, depression, and degenerative conditions. Our bodies are designed to maintain an alkaline balance with a pH of 7.365.By including plenty of alkaline minerals in our diets calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium we help our body maintain its alkaline balance naturally. Tomatoes are excellent sources of calcium, magnesium, and potassium and can aid in preventing acidosis.

15. Reduce Migraines .Tomatoes are an outstanding source of riboflavin, which helps for reducing the migraine attacks.

16. Boost Immunity .Due to consumption of tomatoes helps to avoid flu and colds, especially for males. These common illnesses are widely believed to be rooted in carotenoid deficiencies, including low amounts of lycopene and beta carotene in our body. Drinking tomato juices assists in building defenses against colds and flu.

17. Natural Unscreen .It has been showing that lycopene in tomatoes works as a natural sunscreen and provide protection against UV rays.

18. Treatment of Vasolidation .Vitamin C has effectively resulted in proper dilation of blood vessels in the cases of atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, high cholesterol, angina pectoris, and high blood pressure. It has been found that supplements of vitamin C improve blood vessel dilation.

19. Lead Toxicity .Lead Toxicity is a severe health problem found in children, especially in the urban areas. Abnormal development and growth has been found in children who are exposed to lead. They develop behavioral problems, learning disabilities and have low IQ. It may damage the kidney and increase blood pressure in adults. Vitamin C supplements reduce the blood lead level. Hence by intake of tomato lead toxicity can be reduced among the children. Hence tomato has rich in vitamin c due to this it can able to lower this risk factor.

20. Combating Stroke .Vitamin C in tomato or Ascorbic Acid helps in reducing the risk of stroke, a kind of cardiovascular disease. A diet full of vegetables and fruits produces good quantity of vitamin C which maintains the appropriate blood pressure level. It also protects the body from free radicals which could be the reason for the stroke.

21. Mood .Vitamin C present in the tomato plays a key role in the production of neurotransmitters,  If vitamin c is less then they can affect the mood of a person and are critical to the proper functioning of the brain.

22. Half-ripe tomatoes offer an excellent remedy in all sorts of liver troubles.Tomatoes stimulate torpid liver and are very good for dyspepsia, diarrhea and dysentery.
23. As it is a rich source of vitamin C, it is very valuable in scurvy.
24. Half ripe tomatoes are very valuable in summer diarrhea. But it should be taken with musumbi (lime) juice.

25. It is also very effective in dysentery. But it should be taken with garlic and musumbi (lime) juice.
26. Half ripe tomatoes are very useful in hot summer months as it prevents sun stroke or heat stroke.
27. Tomatoes are usually effective in heartburn, flatulence or indigestion.
28. Half-ripe tomatoes are usually given in dyspepsia.
29. Tomatoes contain all four major carotenoids. alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein, and lycopene. These carotenoids may have individual benefits, but also have synergy as a group (that is, they interact to provide health benefits).

30. Tomatoes and broccoli have synergy that may help reduce the risk of prostate cancer. One study showed that prostate tumors grew much more slowly in rats that were fed both tomato and broccoli powder than in rats given lycopene as a supplement or fed just the broccoli or tomato powder alone.

Oxalic acid content of tomato is relatively less than beets, potatoes, cucumber and lettuce. Experts now recommend inclusion of tomatoes in the diets of gall bladder patients. It may aggravate gout problems and uric acid diseases. In fact, tomato is included in the diet as it has uric acid lowering effect.

Heirloom and Rare.From Kashmir Himalayan Region
Red Tomato Seeds -Wild
(Solanum lycopersicum formerly Lycopersicon esculentum )
Packets contain approximately 20 seeds

The Jammu and Kashmir medicinal Plants Introduction Centre
"Ginkgo House", Nambalbal, New Coloney Azizabad, 

Via Wuyan-Meej Road, Pampore PPR J&K 192121
Ph: 01933-223705

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) recommended for breast cancer

Saffron is recommended for breast cancer
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) contains chemical constituents that are responsible for its color, flavor and aroma. Saffron contains numerous phytoactive components, including crocetin, various crocins (such as picrocrocin), zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-carotene and safranal (the main component of saffron's fragrant essential oil). Saffron components have been shown to have strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-tumor properties, as well as reducing blood pressure, anxiety and depression.

Saffron is recommended for breast cancer
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) contains chemical constituents that are responsible for its color, flavor and aroma. Saffron contains numerous phytoactive components, including crocetin, various crocins (such as picrocrocin), zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-carotene and safranal (the main component of saffron's fragrant essential oil). Saffron components have been shown to have strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-tumor properties, as well as reducing blood pressure, anxiety and depression.

Breast cancer-related effects of eating saffron

Both saffron and crocin have been found to suppress DNA damage in a dose dependent manner in the livers, lungs, kidneys, and spleens of laboratory mice. Saffron has been shown to inhibit carcinogen-induced skin carcinoma in mice and to have cytotoxic action against human leukemia cell lines. Saffron also has been shown to cause cell death in HeLa and HepG2 liver cancer cells and TCC 5637 transitional cell carcinoma cells. Saffron extract and its constituent, crocin, have been shown to significantly inhibit the growth of colorectal cancer cells while not harming normal cells. Crocetin, a major carotenoid component of saffron, has been shown to have significant antiproliferative and proapoptic effects in pancreatic cancer cells in the laboratory and in laboratory mice. Saffron extract has been shown to have dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the proliferation of human MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Saffron has been found to greatly inhibit chemotherapy-induced cellular DNA damage. However, there is some evidence that saffron could be toxic at very high doses and we recommend consuming saffron as a spice and not taking saffron tablets.

Additional comments
Saffron is hand picked and hand processed, which is one reason for its high market price. Saffron is grown primarily in Iran, but it is also grown in Spain, Portugal, Italy, Kashmir and some parts of North Africa. Much of the Iranian production is redistributed through Spain. Saffron grown in these regions generally is grown without using pesticides. China is also beginning to produce saffron.

Meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale), also known as wild saffron, Autumn crocus, or colchicum, is an unrelated and poisonous plant that should not be confused with saffron and is to be avoided. It can cause thirst, pain, diarrhea, weakness, vomiting, kidney failure, coma, and death from respiratory failure. Diluted fractions of meadow saffron are sometimes used in herbal remedies for gout and arthritis.

Saffron might interfere with Warfarin (coumadin) and other blood-thinning therapy since it has been shown to reduce platelet aggregation and thrombosis formation.

Selected breast cancer studies
Flavonoids, Proanthocyanidins, and Cancer Risk: A Network of Case-Control Studies From Italy Nutrition and Cancer, October 2010
The present meta-analysis was designed to investigate the associations between dietary intake of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins and risks of various types of cancer. The meta-analysis analyzed data from multiple Italian case-control studies including approximately 10,000 incident, histologically confirmed cases of selected cancers and more than 16,000 cancer-free controls. Multiple logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the highest compared to the lowest quintiles (fifths) of consumption of six classes of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. Total intakes of flavonoids, flavanones, and flavonols were found to be inversely related to oral and laryngeal cancers (OR = 0.56 (oral cancer) and OR = 0.60 (laryngeal cancer) for total flavonoids; 0.51 (oral) and 0.60 (laryngeal) for flavanones; and 0.62 (oral) and 0.32 (laryngeal) for flavonols). Intake of flavanols was also found to be inversely related to laryngeal cancer (OR = 0.64), whereas intake of flavanones was inversely related to esophageal cancer (OR = 0.38). Reduced risk of colorectal cancer was associated with high intake of anthocyanidins (OR = 0.67), flavonols (OR = 0.64), flavones (OR = 0.78), and isoflavones (OR = 0.76). Inverse associations were also found between proanthocyanidins and colorectal cancer, especially for proanthocyanidins with a higher degree of polymerization (OR = 0.69 for ≥ 10 mers). No association between flavonoids and prostate cancer was found. A reduction in risk of breast cancer was found for high dietary intake of flavones (OR = 0.81) and flavonols (OR = 0.80). Common flavones include apigenin and luteolin (tricin is another flavone found primarily in brown rice). Common flavonols include quercetin, kaempferol and fisetin. Flavonols (OR = 0.63) and isoflavones (OR = 0.51) were found to be inversely associated with risk of ovarian cancer, whereas flavonols (OR = 0.69) and flavones (OR = 0.68) were inversely associated with renal cancer.

Circulating Carotenoids, Mammographic Density, and Subsequent Risk of Breast Cancer Cancer Research, November 2009
The present nested case-control study was designed to investigate whether the association between carotenoid consumption and risk of breast cancer is related to mammographic density. High breast density as measured by mammography has been reported to be a powerful indicator of increased breast cancer risk. The study included 604 breast cancer cases and 626 cancer-free controls in the Nurses' Health Study for whom circulating carotenoid (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein/zeaxanthin) levels had been measured and mammograms obtained prospectively. Using a computer-assisted method to determine mammographic density, circulating carotenoids were not found to be associated with mammographic density. However, mammographic density significantly influenced the association between total circulating carotenoids and risk of breast cancer (P heterogeneity = 0.008). Total circulating carotenoid levels were found to be inversely associated with overall breast cancer risk (P trend = 0.01). Among women in the highest third of mammographic density, total circulating carotenoids were associated with a 50% lower risk of breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.5; 95% confidence interval = 0.3 - 0.8). Similarly, among these women, high levels of circulating alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein/zeaxanthin were found to be associated with a significant 40% to 50% reduction in risk of breast cancer (P trend < 0.05). On the other hand, no such inverse association was observed between circulating carotenoids and breast cancer risk among study participants with low mammographic density. The authors conclude that plasma levels of carotenoids may play a role in reducing risk of breast cancer, especially among women with high breast density.

Crocetin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and tumor progression in a xenograft mouse model Molecular Cancer

Therapeutics, March 2009

The present study was designed to determine whether crocetin, a unique carotenoid found in saffron, significantly affects pancreatic cancer growth. Crocetin was found to inhibit proliferation of MIA-PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells. Crocetin also was found to alter the cell cycle proteins Cdc-2, Cdc-25C, and Cyclin-B1 and epidermal growth factor receptor, inhibiting proliferation. In vivo studies also were performed. Pancreatic cancer cells were injected into the right hind legs of athymic nude mice and crocetin was given orally to the mice after the development of a palpable tumor. Significant regression in tumor growth (with inhibition of proliferation) was found in the crocetin-treated animals compared to the control animals. The authors conclude that crocetin stimulated significant apoptosis in both in vitro pancreatic cancer cells and in vivo mice tumors.

Study of cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of saffron extract in human cancer cell lines Food and Chemical Toxicology, November 2008
The present study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of saffron extract in HepG2 and HeLa liver cancer cell lines. Malignant liver cancer cells and non-malignant cells were cultured and incubated with varying concentrations of an ethanolic saffron extract. Saffron was shown to decrease cell viability in malignant cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Saffron also induced a sub-G1 peak in the flow cytometry histogram of saffron-treated cells compared to the controls, indicating apoptotic cell death was involved. This toxicity was found to be independent of ROS production. The authors conclude that saffron can cause cell death in HeLa and HepG2 liver cancer cells, and that apoptosis or programmed cell death plays an important role in this process.

Crocin from Crocus Sativus Possesses Significant Anti-Proliferation Effects on Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Experimental Oncology, September 2007

The anti-proliferative effects of Crocus sativus and its major component, crocin, on three colorectal cancer cell lines was examined in this study. Crocus sativus' effect on normal cells was also evaluated. The purity of crocin in the extract used was found to be 95.9% and the crocin content was 22.9%. The extract was found to significantly inhibit the growth of all three colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116, SW-480, and HT-29) in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). Proliferation was reduced most significantly in HCT-116 cells; to 45.5% at 1.0 mg/ml and to 6.8 % at 3.0 mg/ml. The Crocus sativus extract also had significant anti-proliferative effects in non-small cell lung cancer cells. However, the extract did not significantly affect the growth of non-cancerous young adult mouse colon cells. The authors concluded that Crocus sativus extract and its major constituent, crocin, significantly inhibited the growth of colorectal cancer cells while not affecting normal cells.

Inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation by style constituents of different Crocus species Anticancer Research, January 2007
Among the different species of Crocus, only the styles of Crocus Sativus L. have been studied extensively, since these constitute the well-known spice saffron. Saffron is widely used in Mediterranean, Indian and Chinese cuisine. In the present study, hydrophilic carotenoids in the styles of three other Crocuses endemic to Greece (C. boryi ssp. tournefortii, C. boryi ssp. boryi, and C. niveus) were discovered and reported on for the first time. Incubation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells for 48 hours with varying concentrations of extracts of all four styles was found to have a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. The antiproliferative effect did not appear to be estrogen related. Studies on the effect of trans-crocin-4 (the main carotenoid constituent of C. sativus styles, digentibiosylester of crocetin), crocetin and safranal showed that the antiproliferative effect was attributable to crocin irrespective of the degree of glycosylation.

Subacute Toxicity of Crocus Sativus L. (Saffron) Stigma Ethanolic Extract in Rats American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2007
The present study was designed to evaluate the possible toxic effects of an extract of Crocus sativus L. stigma on liver, kidney and selected hematological parameters in rats. Establishing the safety of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is important since the medicinal properties attributed to it are extensive. Wistar rats were assigned to four groups of eight. The first group was designated the control. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated with an ethanolic extract of saffron in doses of 0.35, 0.70 and 1.05 g per kg, respectively, for two weeks. The body weights of the rats were measured on the first, seventh and final days of the study. Blood-related tests performed on the rats included total RBC count, total WBC count, Hb, %HCT, MCH, MCV and MCHC. Biochemical and serum profile tests included ALT, AST, urea, uric acid and creatinine. Tissue specimens of the rat livers and kidneys were also examined histologically. The extract was found to result in significant reductions in Hb and HCT levels and total RBC count, without a dose-dependent relationship. However, significant dose-dependent increases in total WBC count, ALT, AST, urea, uric acid and creatinine were found in extract-treated rats. Mild to severe liver and kidney tissue injuries were observe microscopically, supporting the biochemical analysis. The authors conclude that extract of Crocus sativus L. stigma is toxic in high doses.

Protective effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) aqueous extract against genetic damage induced by anti-tumor agents in mice Human & Experimental Toxicology, February 2006
The genotoxic potential of chemotherapy drugs limits their efficacy in the treatment of cancers. This study was designed to evaluate the chemoprotective potential of saffron against the toxicity of three well-known chemotherapy drugs, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide and mitomycin-C, using comet assay. Three doses of saffron (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg of body weight) were orally administered to mice for five days prior to dosing with the drugs under investigation. Pre-treatment with saffron was found to greatly inhibit chemotherapy drug-induced cellular DNA damage (i.e., strand breaks). The authors conclude that, together with previous study results, the findings suggest a potential role for saffron as an adjuvant in chemotherapeutic applications.

Crocus Sativus L. (Saffron) Stigma available at:
JK Meddicinal Plants Introduction Centre (R&D Department)
POB: 667 GPO Srinagar SGR J&K 190001
Mob: 09858986794
Ph: 01933-223705